Medical Knowledge


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Description: C:\Users\thainq\Desktop\than.jpgUrinary stone is a common disease and has high rate of recurrence in the urinary tract. Statistical data in the hospital with urinary department in Vietnam shows that approximately 10% of population suffers from kidney stone in our country. Beside pain, kidney stone results to dangerous complication such as urinary infection, urine retention, renal impairment, or even kidney rupture.

Epidemic research shows that urinary kidney stone is one of the popular diseases in the world, accounts for 3% of the population, accounts for 30-50% of urinary patients. The disease occurs with high rate in male of China, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, India, Pakistan, Greek, England and  Scandinavie island.

Vietnam belongs to kidney stone belt of the world. Statistically data exhibits that the rate of kidney stone in male is 69.39%, 30,61% for female, suffering age is from 25-60. Therefore, kidney stone has been taken into account of modern medicine and traditional medicine as well.

Chemical analysis of kidney stone reveals that constituent of kidney stone categorized into 5 kinds. Calcium originated stone keeps the highest rate (60-80%), possibly caused by the production of Oxalate or Phosphate Calcium due to the increase of calcium content in the urine; Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate stone (or called Struvite stone or coral stone) which caused by urinary infection is 5 – 15%, other types of kidney stone is rarely seen, it caused by metabolism disorder: Cystin stone is caused by genetic disorder, Uric stone is caused by the increase of uric acid in the urine, silicon dioxide stone is caused by prolonged use of Magnesium Trisilicate which is usually administered in the treatment of duodenum – gastric ulcer.


Kidney stone may be found in any part of the urinary tract. Stone in the ureter is usually formed in calyx and then fell in to the urethra. Stone in the urethra is formed in the bladder and then follow the urine down to the urethra.

Stone in the kidney accounts for 54.26%, stone in the uterer accounts for 40.97% and a small rate of kidney stone in the bladder.

Kidney stone is formed because of the shortage of daily water intake for the body, or the increase of mineral content like calcium, sodium, cystine or phosphorus, etc. These substances deposited sediment in the calyx, renal pelvis for a long time and form into stone. Small stones can be eliminated with the urine and cause no symptoms. Bigger stones can also be moved with the urine flow but this will cause pain and bleeding in the urinary tract, or they are stuck in the narrow place of the ureter and result in the inflammation of the ureter.

Kidney stones have rough, bristy, sharp surface, so they can easily damage the kidney and other urinary organs. Some stones stay in the kidney and become bigger, occupy the calyx and renal pelvis, cause serious complications, reduce the excretion function of this organ. The process of kidney stone formation cause no symptoms, so patients do not know they suffer from kidney stone. Patients recognize their disease only when the stone are big enough and cause pain, or stone expelled through urination.

Popular symptoms of kidney stone disease

Manifestation of kidney stone disease is easily confused with other diseases. Stone can induce pain in the side of the abdomen, between the ribbon and the hip, painful feeling in the hip pervades to the groin.

Depending on the severity of the disease, common symptoms of kidney stone disease are following:
-   Hard urination, painful urination, urination with stone elimination.
-   Fierce pain, pain starts in the ureter points, pervades following the uterer to the pubis. Sometimes, pain induces through the hip, back, or dull pain which seen in medium stone and even big stone but located in the renal pelvis
- Urination with blood is common complication of kidney – urinary stone, particularly when moving in the urinary tract, stones damage the urinary tract and cause bleeding in the urinary tract, result in urination with blood.
-   Opaque urine, recurrent urination with pus, while urinary infection.
-   High temperature, tremble cold with the symptom of hip pain, back ache, hard urination, painful urination, urination with pus are signs of acute nephritis.
-   Signs of urinary obstruction such as remittent urination retention or complete urination retention.
In some severe cases, the disease can result in urination retention, nephritis, acute and chronic pyelitis, renal pelvis obstructed with water, pus, these lead to renal impairment. Whereas, chronic nephritis is the most severe consequence of urinary kidney stone because of the inability of recovery due to the gradual sclerosis of the kidney. If urinary kidney stone is not diagnosed soon and are not treated timely, the disease will cause serious complications.

Serious complications of urinary kidney stone

Urinary infection: the movement of the stone, especially sharp surface stone damage the urinary tracts cause pervading pain in the hip region, waist, urination with bleeding, etc. Collision with the urinary tract results in the risk of oedema of the mucous membrane, swelling, inflammation, these facilitate bacteria penetration and urinary infection. In case of mild infection, symptoms may be hard urination, backache, urine with leukocyte. In more severe cases, patients have pus in the urine, high temperature. In case of combining with urinary obstruction, the kidney may become stagnated with water, with pus. If urinary kidney stone is not diagnosed soon, urinary infection occurs and treatment will meets many difficulties. Doctor will put drain for the drainage of pus out of the kidney, the disease is only treated when the infection is lessen. In case of this severe disease, treatment is very limited. The best treatment is removal of the damage tumor in order to avoid concurrent pus formation.

-  Urinary obstruction: Stones which is formed in the calyx, the renal pelvis, the bladder are able to fell into the uterer or urethra and cause obstruction. In this case, the urinary tract will reflect strongly by  pulsation in order to expel the stone out of the obstruction place. This results in piercing pain in the ribbon and the hip, in the waist, medical terminology calls this kidney storm pain. Simultaneously, this results to water stagnation for the kidney, the uterer. If the stone is timely eliminated out of the body, this condition can disappear. Otherwise, after prolonged water stagnation, the kidney no longer recovers. Finally, retention of urine occurs. In case of urinary obstruction, urine stagnation causes infection, gradually sclerosis of urinary tract wall will occurs, including sclerosis of the calyx.

-  Hydronephrosis: urinary – kidney stone causes urinary infection and urinary obstruction, urine is stagnated and can not move to the bladder, so the kidney is stagnated with water and dilates larger. Kidney stagnated with water can easily be turned stagnated with pus, damages kidney parenchyma. Hydronephrosis can easily result to acute or chronic kidney impairment.

-  Acute kidney impairment: severe renal infection results in serious effects such as acute kidney impairment, even nephrectomy in case the kidney totally occupied with pus. In case 2 kidneys are blocked at the same time, urination do not occurs, and this can cause death if patient is not treated timely within some days.

-  Chronic kidney impairment: In case of kidney stone disease, prolonged infection and water stagnation will deteriorate gradually kidney tissues. In human, each kidney comprises of more than 1 million kidney units, some kidney units die over the time without regeneration. In case of loss of 50% of kidney unit (kidney impairment level I, II or in person with one kidney removal), patients can still live normally because there are no symptoms or there are little symptoms such as mild anaemia, appetite loss, fatigue, difficulty in the back hollow. But in case of loss of 75% of kidney unit, clinical symptoms of kidney impairment occur more obviously, patients have to consider costly measurements to maintain their life such as artificial kidney dialysis or kidney transplant. At present, kidney implant is not popular in our country and people rarely offer their kidney. Artificial kidney dialysis is rarely equipped in some medical centre, and treatment cost is rather high.

Structure of Kidney unit (nephron)

-   Kidney rupture: serious urinary infection sometimes results in caseation, leaky holes in the bladder, the ureter, or some cases of kidney rupture, bladder rupture due to kidney stone. Kidney rupture is caused by the water stagnation in the kidney, thin kidney wall. However, this is rarely seen case.

Function of the kidney decreases in case of stones in 2 sides of the kidney, especially kidney infection combining with kidney stone results in kidney impairment. The best advice for kidney stone patients is that patients should go for a medical examination regularly in order to diagnose soon and treat the disease timely.

Early and quickly treatment, and especially recovery of kidney function are very important to avoid the complication of kidney impairment.

Treatment for kidney stone disease should notice of recurrence avoidance, urinary – kidney stone is disease with high rate of recurrence, risk of kidney impairment increases in case of recurrence.

Treatment for kidney stone

Kidney stone is prevented and treated by some measure of internal medicine and surgery. However, each methods has its own disadvantages.

Treatment by internal medicine according to western medicine has very limited results and is expensive. Surgery treatment by operation to take out the stone or technique of ultrasonic to break the stone, to destroy the stone through skin, to take out the urinary stone through endoscopy, etc. are invasive techniques. These has expensive treatment cost, sometimes occurs surgical catastrophe and is particularly administered, requires special machinery and skilled technicians.

Text Box:    Desmodium styracifoliumTreatment of kidney stone by traditional medicine has been developed since the late of 1970. Kim Tien Thao - Desmodium styracifolium (Osb.) Merr. (Fabaceae) – is a medicinal herb which is very efficacious in treatment of urinary stone. Trieu Hoc Man (1719-1805) in the book “The Compendium of Materia Medica” has mentioned Desmodium styracifolium at the first time. Since 1970, Desmodium styracifolium has been used to treat urinary stone in China, rate of stone elimination is 30 -63.3% for stone with dimension less than 8mm. Desmodium styracifolium has been introduced in Chinese Pharmacopoeia in monograph Shilintong (in form of finished product). The Chinese traditional medicine has perceived Desmodium styracifolium as the ideal herb to treat urinary stones.

Modern pharmacological studies show that Desmodium styracifolium has the following effects:

  • Induces diuretic evidently,
  • Eliminates inflammation, relieves pain,
  • Has antibiotic effect,
  • Eliminates and eradicates kidney stone,
  • Benefits the bile and increases the bile excretion.

Therefore, the mechanism for elimination of kidney stone is explained as following: Firstly, Desmodium styracifolium causes diuretic, dilutes the urine and stops the stone from forming bigger. Then, thanks to anti-inflammation and antibiotic properties, it reduces oedema of the urinary tract, facilitates the stone moving downward and being expelled. Eastern medicine’s concept is the same of that and call it shillitong (expel the stone and clear the urinary tract).


In Vietnam, Desmodium styracifolium has been studied on bacterial resistance since 1975, introduced in books Vietnamese Medicinal Herbs  since 1978 and officially shown in Vietnamese Pharmacopoeia III published in 2002. Researches show that chemical components of leaves of Desmodium styracifolium includes flavonoide, Phenolic, Glycoside, NaCl, KCl, etc. Toxical test in mice with dosage equivalent to 333 times of clinical dose exhibits that Desmodium styracifolium almost never has toxicity.

Clinical result evidences that Desmodium styracifolium has good efficacy in stone originated from Calcium. Duration of treatment depends on the dimension and the location of the stone in the urinary tract. Desmodium styracifolium rarely causes side effects in case of long term use. After there are no clinical symptoms left, kidney stone formation can be prevented by intake of Desmodium styracifolium with lower dose.

Kim tien Thao OPC with the brand name “The Old Man”, a pharmaceutical product treating urinary stones was firstly produced in Vietnam in 1998 through advanced herbal multipurpose extraction technique which invested only in OPC  Pharmaceutical Joint Stock Company.

Accompanying with the sustainable development of OPC, Kim tien Thao OPC with the brand name “The Old Man” is currently presented in the market with the following major forms:
Kim tien Thao film coated tablets, box containing 1 bottle of 100 tablets. Take orally 5 tablets/time x 3 times/day. Drink lot of water during treatment duration. This product is appropriate for diabetic.
Kim tien Thao sugar coated tablets, box containing 1 bottle of 100 tablets. Take orally 5 tablets/time x 3 times/day. Drink lot of water during treatment duration.

Distinguishing features of  Kim Tien Thao with “The Old Man” brand name of OPC is that the company applies the most advanced extraction technique. The multipurpose extraction system is circulative and convective, changes the extraction solvent to yield the pure extract with treatment efficacy. All the stage of production process is carried out in the factory complying with WHO GMP Standard.

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Multipurpose extraction system and double effect concentration system

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High performace liquid chromatography and gas chromatography for quality inspection

With the revenue of some billions VN dong in the beginning years launching in the pharmaceutical market for treating urinary stone (1998-1999), Kim Tien Thao OPC with “the old man” brand name sharply reached the revenue of over 22 billion VN dong in the year 2000, became one of 10 the most prominent events of Vietnam Pharmaceutical Cooperation and kept good growth.

In recent years, in spite of confronting by hundreds of competitive products domestically and abroad, Kim Tien Thao OPC with “the old man” brand name always win the trust of customers, its sale increases strongly and always hold the leading market share of kidney stone medicine in Vietnam. Besides that, Kim Tien Thao OPC step by step participates into oversea market since the beginning of the 21st century.

Professor Filser – author of the well-known book “customer behaviour” has written: “customer’s loyalty is not unchanged” because they have too much choice when deciding to buy one kind of product but with many trade names. The fact is that Kim Tien Thao OPC with “the old man” brand name is always for ever accompanying with customer loyalty due to quality of Kim Tien Thao and the prestige of the company.

Description: sepLinhMr Nguyen chi Linh – Vice of the Board of the Directors, CEO of the company has said: OPC attaches special importance to invest in science and technology, to improve the competitiveness of the domestic medicine, there are no measure other than increase the content of science and technology in each tablet finished product. Furthermore, the company have to determine which is corporation’s competitive advantage, which products is strategic. OPC itself has experienced this stage and has orientated pharmaceutical product to invest and develop in the long time.

On the quality aspect, OPC is one of the leading corporations producing herbal medicine and complying with WHO-GMP Standard. Source of starting herbal materials are concisely identified, standardised and cultivated according to GACP Standard.

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Kim Tien Thao is grown in OPC Bac Giang Factory, according to GACP Standard

OPC Pharmaceutical Joint Stock Company
Bac Giang has been certified GMP - WHO

Pharmacological test of Kim Tien Thao OPC with “The Old Man” brand name was carried out in of Traditional Pharmaceutical and Medical Institute of Ho Chi Minh City in 1997, Its clinical test result was  good and was carried out in Nguyen Tri Phuong Hospital (09/1999 - 03/2000), Thong Nhat Hospital (05/1999 - 03/2000) and Clinical Hospital belonging to National Institute for Pharmacy and Medicine of URAL – Russia (11/2000).

Kim Tien Thao OPC with “The Old Man” brand name has granted “the Golden Cup  for the products with prestige and quality” from Vietnam Industry Property Association. Kim Tien Thao OPC with “The Old Man” brand name is honorably granted the title “The Star of Vietnamese Medicine” from Ministry of Health in 2014.

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Distinguishing from other kidney stone medicine, quality meaning of Kim Tien Thao OPC with “The Old Man” brand name is that the product is assured at optimum and stablised quality due to modern multipurpose herbal extraction system in the growing, cultivating, processing area and optimal manufacturing procedure; furthermore, Kim Tien Thao OPC with “The Old Man” brand name reaches to a higher level, that is the perceiving value in customer’s heart and mind.

On epidemic aspect, “The Old Man” image of Kim Tien Thao OPC represents the gender, age and most of Asia country locates within the belt of urinary stone.

For the manifestation of cultural characteristic of the ethnic category, “The Old Man” image of Kim Tien Thao OPC is a democratic manner, homely, friendly, represents the “Seniores priores” manner, “respect the elders and yield the youngers” characteristic;  Vietnamese children, grandchildren and descendant always care about the health of their grandparents and parents; “The Old Man” image expresses these above mentioned deeply meaning.

On the concept of differentiation creation so as to position trade name successfully, Kim Tien Thao OPC with “The Old Man” brand name has become a perceiving assembly of quality, image, lifestyle, safe and convenience in the thinking of current and future customers.

Exactly as Al Reis & Laura Reis have written: Marketing is not a battle of products, it is a battle for the way of thinking” and “to act firstly is the best”.

The figure of 16 past years shows that Kim Tien Thao OPC with “The Old Man” brand name has received ten thousands of thanking via email, fax, telephone, letter, etc. from everywhere domestically and abroad.

With that perfect value, we hope that Kim Tien Thao OPC with “The Old Man” brand name will continue to receive the support of the customers and will ever be the first choice  of patients in treating urinary stone.

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By Bao Tri - Translate by Master Pharmacist Dan Tran Ngoc

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